(...With the help of some of their
The excellent, mainly original research
of the site, Tete de Turc, is what comprised most of this page.
|Pledging support to the Ottomans' mortal foe
"We ask your Seigneury, to present to His Majesty the Emperor,
on my part as well as in the name of my community of Russia, the devoted feelings of his
faithful subjects, as well as affection and sympathy without defect of the Armenians of
Turkey. Also defend with the Czar the hope which the Armenians of Turkey cherish.
Letter of Armenian Catholicos of Etchmiadzin to the Russian governor general of the
Caucasus, the Count Illarion Ivanovitch Vorontsov-Dashkov, on August 5th, 1914. (The holy
man would shamefully consent to being represented by terrorist and mass murderer Armen Garo as his
"special agent": see below.)
"Be it our Armenians or those that are on the other side of
the border, I want that they follow my instructions. You should use your authority
in your community so that our Armenians join those that are on the other side of the
border ; thus, in the current situation of Turkey, as in the future, I shall let
them know what they should do in case of turco-russian war, I shall inform them
about the nature of their missions and shall ask them to carry out their duty."
Answer of the Russian Governor General of the Caucasus, the Count Illarion
Ivanovitch Vorontsov-Dachkov, to Etchmiadzin’s Armenian catholicos, on September
|Few Ottoman-Armenians could have remained loyal
"The Russian Armenians, in the ranks of the Moscow
army, will carry out their duty to avenge the insult made on the corpses of our brothers;
as for us, the Armenians dominated by Turkey, no Armenian’s rifle has to leave of our
ranks against friends and allies of France, our second homeland. Turkey mobilizes, it
conscripts us without telling us against whom. Against Russia ? There now, we will not
fire against our own brothers of the Caucasus ; against Balkan States for which we feel
but sympathy ? Never ! You Turks, you’ve come to the wrong person. Armenians, Turkey
conscripts you without saying against whom : join up as volunteers in the ranks of the
French Army and its allies to help to crush the army of Guillaume II."
Aram Tourabian, "The Armenian volunteers under the French flags", Marseille,
1917, page 6
Boghos Nubar said it
For the Armenians have been belligerents de facto,
since they indignantly refused to side with Turkey. Our volunteers fought in the
French ‘Legion Etrangere’ and covered themselves with glory. In the Legion d’Orient
they numbered over 5,000, and made up more than half the French contingent in Syria
and Palestine, which took part in the decisive victory of General Allenby. In
the Caucasus, without mentioning
the 150,000 Armenians in the Russian armies, about 50,000 Armenian
volunteers (offered resistance to the Turkish
Boghos Nubar Pasha, in a January 30, 1919 (pg. 6) letter to The
Times of London.
did "Armen Garo" Pasdermadjian
"I desire to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 4th and 23rd
ultimo requesting the recognition of the Armenians and the Armenian
Republic of the Ararat as co-belligerents..."
Frank L. Polk, Acting Secretary of State,
in a Dec. 6, 1918 letter to Dr. G. Pasdermadjian (a.k.a., Armen Garo), Special
Agent of His Holiness, the Catholicos of All Armenians. In the letter, in
regards to U.S. recognition of the Armenians as co-belligerents, Polk stated
that "this Government is not yet in a position to express any view on
the matter." There were times even then when the United States
government would refuse to negotiate with terrorists.
The Armenian Review, Life and Papers
of Vahan Cardashian: Part V, Spring 1958, p. 67
|Garo: Loyalty would have meant no massacres!
"[R]ealizing the universal significance of the present war, and considering the
fact that justice was on the side of the Entente, the Armenians, in spite of
their distrust of the Russian government, from the very beginning, unreservedly
bound themselves to the allied cause.
This decision of the Armenians cost them the sacrifice of more than 1,000,000
men in Turkish Armenia, and complete devastation of their native land even in the
first year of the war.
...[D]uring the last eight months and a half [before October, 1918] the
Armenians have received from the Allies only 6,500,000 rubles ($3,250,000) of
financial assistance, and the 2,800 British soldiers who were too few and
arrived too late to save Baku.
...If the Armenians had sided with
the Germano-Turks in the Near East from the beginning of the war... those frightful
Armenian massacres would not have taken place. On the contrary, the Turks
and the Germans would have tried to win the sympathy of the Armenians in every
possible way until the end of the war.
(Had the Armenians joined the Central Powers, as the Georgians and Tartars
"were only too eager to" do so, "by cutting the railroads... all the
Caucasian country would have slipped out of the hands of the Russians in a few
weeks." A united Armenian-Georgian-Tartar army of 700,000 "would have been
able to defend... against the Russians. Meanwhile, the entire Turkish army would
have been able to advance immediately toward the interior of Asia and join the
18,000,000 Moslems of Asiatic Russia." Russia, Great Britain and France would
have been forced to take other measures, and "thus the war might have ended in
1915 or 1916 with the victory of the central Powers, at least on land.")
Dr. G. Pasdermadjian (Armen Garo), Why Armenia Should Be Free: Armenia's Role in
the Present War, Hairenik Publishing Company, Boston, 1918, pp. 42-44.
Highlighting is Holdwater's.
ADDENDUM: This booklet is now available on TAT.
don't forget the missionaries
"The awakening of a revolutionary state
of mind among the Turkish Armenians resulted from Russian stimulations."
Hairenik, newspaper of the Armenian Dachnak Party, June 28th, 1918 issue
it really "double taxation" and the "Kurds"?
"The aims of the revolutionary committees are to arouse a
general discontent and to force the Turkish government and the population to react
violently, that would draw the attention of the foreign nations to Armenians’ imaginary
suffering and encourage them to intervene to right the situation."
The British Blue Book, No. 6 (1894), pages 222-223
They fired the first shot
"The members of Dachnak and Hintchak parties
have terrorized their own compatriots, they have irritated the Moslem populations
with robberies and wild actions ; they have incapacitated all the efforts to
implement reforms ; all the events in Anatolia find their origins in the crimes
committed by Armenian revolutionary committees."
Note written on March the 4th of 1896 by the British vice-consul in Van, Blue Book,
No. 8 (1896), page 108
War" was the way of the Dashnaks
"The objective of the Armenian Revolutionary Union (Dachnak)
was to obtain economic and political freedom in Turkish Armenia by means of the rebellion.
Terrorism was adopted since the beginning, it was for the Dachnak committee of the
Caucasus a policy or a strategy to attain its aim . In their program adopted in 1892, in
the column ’Means’, ’Method 8’ was described this way : ’Make war and subject
the government, the officials and the traitors to terrorism’ ; ’Subject the
governmental institutions to the destruction and to plunder’. (...) The purpose of these
riots was to make sure that European powers would intervene in the Ottoman internal
K. S. Papazian, "Patriotism perverted", Boston, 1934
"From the first hour" they served... but no
"The Armenians are the voluntary victims of
their sympathy to the Allies and, proportionally to their number , are the most
affected by the present war. From the first hour, they attached their fate to that
of the Allies and, depending on their possibilities , gave all that they could put
in the service of the great cause and this without any bargaining; in placing their
faith in the justice of the Allies, they are persuaded that at the time of the
settlement of accounts they will be rewarded according to their sacrifice."
French newspaper Le Soleil du Midi, issue of February 9, 1916. Also from this
Armenians in Van, 30,000 in Sassun
"...According to detailed information we are receiving, especially the
declaration given by M. Sazanoff at the Duma*, the Armenians, numbering 10,000,
under the leadership of Aram Manoukian, have resisted the Turkish troops in Van
for a month, and succeeded in putting them to flight before the Russian armies
In the mountains of Sassun, 30,000 Armenian revolutionaries have been fighting
hopelessly for nine months, while waiting for the arrival of the Russian armies as
well as of the troops of Armenian volunteers.
In Cilicia, in the mountains of Kessab, thousands of Armenians as well are
awaiting the arrival of the French and the British."
Le Soleil du Midi, February 9, 1916; see Aram Turabian, Les Volontaires
Arméniens sous les Drapreaux Francais (Marseilles, 1917), pp. 38-42.
* The statement Sazanoff had made in the Duma was that `In this
war the Armenians are fighting with the Russians against the Ottoman Empire.'
"...It would seem as if an Armenian insurrection to help the Russians had
broken out at Van. Thus a former deputy here, one Pastormadjian who had
assisted our proposed railway concessions some years ago, is now supposed to be
fighting with the Turks with a legion of Armenian volunteers. These insurgents are
said to be in possession of a part of Van and to be conducting guerilla warfare in a
country where regular military operations are extremely difficult. To what extent
they are organised or what successes they have gained it is impossible for me to
say; their numbers have been variously estimated but none puts them at less than ten thousand and twenty-five thousand is probably closer to
(National Archives and Records Administration [NARA], College Park, Maryland,
Morgenthau to the Secretary of State, 25 May 1915, RG 353 [Internal Affairs,
Turkey], Roll 41, p. 3. Footnoted from Dr. Edward J. Erickson's "Bayonets on
Musa Dagh: Ottoman Counterinsurgency Operations — 1915," The Journal of
Strategic Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, 529-548, June 2005.)
Rafael de Nogales, who directed the siege on Van (and branded
the "Osmanli Sheitan [Devil]" by the Armenians), wrote in his "Memoirs
of a Soldier of Fortune" (1932) that in April 1915 (p. 328) he commanded
12,000 Turks against the 35,000 Armenians of Aram Pasha (p. 269), although he
downgraded to 30,000 two pages later.
ADDENDUM, 11-07; In contrast to Morgenthau's honest internal
communication above, it is instructive to point out how he relayed the matter in his
propagandistic "Ambassador Morgenthau's Story" three years later
(Ch. 23, THE "REVOLUTION" AT VAN): "The whole Armenian fighting force
consisted of only 1,500 men; they had only 300 rifles and a most inadequate
supply of ammunition, while Djevdet had an army of 5,000 men, completely equipped
back then, the French declared their love
"I shall keep the immortal to
recollection of your bravery and your ardor. Generous France will proudly remember
that It had the honor to entrust the Sons of Armenia with a batch of bayonets which
they handled with enthusiasm : may the blood shed and the public heroism not remain
The Commander-in-chief of the Occupation Forces of Levant Djihan, on August 19,
1920, General Gouraud, Armenian Institute of France
|Our Seventh Ally
"With Serbia and Belgium, the number of the allied States
of the Entente had risen to six. But who is the seventh ally ? (...) It’s the Armenians.
They participated in the World War from its beginning. (...) They threw themselves
enthusiastically into a hand-to-hand fight without waiting for our invitation and without
proceeding with any bargaining. (...) Admiring, from the beginning of hostilities, the
organization of the Entente, they gave free rein to respect and to the confidence that
they gave to us at all times and rushed immediately into fighting. They are still
fighting. One hundred thousand of them are in the Russian army, twenty thousand others are
fighting with the Caucasus army, and many Armenian volunteers are in the rows of the
Entente on the French front."
(Further quotes from this article: Armenia "began to fight on the side of the Entente
from the very beginning" and "is fighting on the side of the Allies. . .")
"Our Seventh Ally", article published in the British newspaper Daily
Chronicle, September 23, 1915 issue
"At this moment, 80,000 Armenian soldiers
are fighting under the Russian flags against the German and Austrian armies, and
40,000 against Turkey. Thousands of Armenian volunteers coming from everywhere are
shedding their blood at the Turkish and Persian border to assure the victory of the
Allies. These men are the Armenian revolutionaries so well informed of the mood of
the Ottoman soldiers. These men, knowing the most important strategic points,
rendered invaluable services to the Russian avant-gardes. Sympathies shown to the
Allies by the rebelled Armenia will be recognized and appreciated after the victory
of the Entente..."
Armenian newspaper Yeridasart Hayasdan (’Young Armenia’, published in the United
States), June 25, 1915 issue
loyalty to Russians before "April 24"
"In the campaign of the Caucasus, the Armenian committees
splendidly raised the glory of the Russians. They are the soldiers of Antranik who took
Saray and Bachkalé for the Russians. Assault against Beyazit was also given by the troops
of Antranik and they are the Armenian volunteers under the command of Samson who,
preventing an encircling movement of the Turks’ in Aserbaidschan, saved the Russians
from a bloody defeat.
Novoïe Vremia, the most important Russian newspaper, mentions with eulogies the Armenians’
love for the Russians and Christendom. (...) The big fight that the Armenians support
today, the sacrifices that they make for the Russian cause, their past civilization, will
bring to them respect of everyone. (...)"
Letter of ’Yervantoni Committee’ from the Armenian newspaper Asparez (published in the
United States), no. 350 of April 23rd, 1915 issue
"deathblow to the dying Turkey" in 1916
"Having men at our disposal, we were able
to form bands of Armenian volunteers and send them to the war scene. This way, we
were able to express our deep gratitude to Russia which showed us so much
benevolence. We find out that certain persons, not supporting the criticism and
basing on childish considerations, recommend to terminate this organization instead
of approving it and trying hard for its development. It’s nothing less than a
crime! We shall not stop the organization of the Armenian volunteers. We shall not
terminate it. No ! On the contrary, we shall extend it and shall strengthen it. We
shall be everywhere in the first row as avant-gardes, and until the end, until the
destruction of the enemy, our place will be next to the Russian Cossacks. (...) The
Armenians will be of those that will give a deathblow to the dying Turkey in its
last moments. Turkey, whilst dying, has to see this of its own eyes and read this
cursed page of its history before closing them.
Today, our main enemy, is the Turk. Those that, openly or in secret, oppose to the
organization of the volunteers or try to limit this force, must be considered as
traitors and interior enemies."
Article signed Sabah-Gulian in the Armenian newspaper Inkenavar Haydasdan (’Independent
Armenia’), no. 25, published on June 19th, 1916
Armenian minds in the usual racist way
"The Turkish, disastrous and treacherous race, attacks once more,
but with more violence, one of the purest and best peoples of the Aryan race. These
fights, which continue for centuries in various forms, are no different from the assault
of a nation remained in darkness against the other whom, having already gone through the
cycle of social progress, moves towards the light. (...) Either us, or them! This fight
dates neither from one year nor from one century. The Armenian nation always resisted
bravely to this race which had treason and crime as its guiding principle.
The World must be relieved of this plague and, for the rest and the tranquility of the
universe, the Turkish nation must be annihilated.
We’re waiting heads up and armed with the faith in the victory."
Article appeared in the Armenian newspaper Hayasdan (’Armenia’, published in Sofia),
no. 56, edition of August 19, 1914
it was NOT "Self-Defense" at Van after all!
Manoukian: Pretty scary looking.
"The Russian government made a decision
which will be welcomed with pleasure and enjoyment by all the Armenian circles : it
chose Aram Manoukian, the leader of Armenian revolutionary movement for governor of
the province of Van. Aram Manoukian was born in 1877, in the Caucasus, in the city
of Chousta. (...) At the beginning of this war, Aram took up arms and became the
head of the insurgents of Van. Russia which possesses at present this province named
Aram governor for it, wishing to satisfy the Armenian element which so brilliantly
participated in the war against Turkey."
French newspaper Le Temps (Paris), August 13th, 1915 issue
are the scouts of the enemy in ambush"
"In 1894, Mr. Cambon, Ambassador of France in Constantinople, said
that it was impossible to find a solution for the Armenian Question. One can not indeed
imagine a solution for this question, the most important of all those appeared in Turkey.
The fight between Turks and Armenians has an idiosyncratic character. The Armenians know
that they will not be able to realize their national aspiration by remaining subjected to
the Turks. This situation results neither from Abdul Hamid’s tyrannical and bloodthirsty
mentality, nor from the chauvinist theories of Young Turks; it is the logical consequence
of the principle of the preservation of the Ottoman Empire. (...) The Armenians are spread
in the Islamic Ocean and are lapping in the middle of its waves. (...) On the other hand,
the Turks know although, as long as there will be Armenians inside Ottoman borders, the
integrity of the Empire will always be threatened. Yesterday’s Russian peril is
substituted by today’s British peril. The Armenians are the scouts of the enemy in
ambush waiting for the occasion to attack. In view of this situation, the solution of the
question can only be the following one: either the Turks out, or the Armenians."
Article appeared in the Armenian review Armenia (published in Turin), in its issue of
feelers to buy arms, in 1914
"According to your orders, our companions
would like to buy weapons through your intervention and according to your choice. We
want to know the prices. It is necessary for us: 1° Martinis ; 2° Mauser revolvers
; 3° flint rifles ; 4° American Smith revolvers ; 5° Brownings. In whole quite
two hundred items with ammunitions."
Letter of the responsibles (the priest Boghos Kalemian and the president H.
Melidossian) of the Armache’s Hintchak committee (municipality of Ermiche
dependent of Izmit), sent to the Hintchak "committee of Constantinople",
and dated November 18th, 1914
review Armenian plans, in 1912
"(...) The activity of the committee, Tachnaktzoutioun is quite
related to the excitement of the Armenian public opinion. This committee is working
obstinately to create animosity between Armenians and Moslems to turn to good account the
misfortune which could result from it, to provoke a Russian intervention and the
occupation of the country by our Army. (...) To arrive at this end, Tachnakistes use
various means and try hard to bring the Armenians to collisions with the Moslems and
especially with the Ottoman troops. So, Tachnakist committees of Bitlis and Mush, in order
to arouse panic among the population, urged the Armenians of the bazaars to close their
shops. Besides, they armed a revolutionary group which, having gone through, in October
and in November, the caza of ’Hizane’, murdered some Kurds to avenge ’Raphaël’s’
death, an Armenian school inspector and supporter of Tachnaktzoutioun . All this had no
other purpose than bringing up fighting between Moslems and Tachnakists. If it occurred,
the Moslems, naturally, would attack the Armenian villages, which would have as a
consequence a Russian armed intervention. The leading Tachnakists of Bitlis declare that
they would commit a big mistake if they do not take advantage of the current situation to
bring the Russians here. (...) The Armenians of cities, those of the countryside, as well
as their religious leaders, always gave evidence of their tendency and their affection for
Russia and declared repeatedly that the Turkish government here is incapable to reign
order, law and prosperity. Many Armenians promise from now on to offer their churches to
the Russian soldiers to be converted in armed orthodox temples. (...) The Tachnaktzoutioun
committee, morally deprived to the eyes of the quiet and peaceful population, tries to get
back the faith of the Armenians and, as I explained here above, try hard to bring shocks
among Armenian and Kurdish, and, generally among Armenian and Moslem, to blur the
situation and to create an excuse for a Russian intervention. (...) The attitude of the
members of Tachnaktzoutioun toward the Armenians and the authorities, and their sympathies
for Russia, are adjusted and are steered by the instructions of their central office in
Report number 63 on December 24th, 1912, sent by the Russian Consul to Bitlis to the
Ambassador of Russia in Constantinople
The Armenian book (printed in the war years), La
Défense héroïque de Van ("The Heroic Defense of Van”), freely explains
how Ottoman-Armenians seized Van, in plans of handing the city over to joint control
with the invading Russian forces. An interesting notation in the book (p. 4)
indicates the Armenians were aware of the great toll disease was taking on the
(...[M]aladie contractée dans les tranchées... Soldiers “contracted diseases in
the trenches” ). When the Governor of Van (Cevdet Bey) asked the Armenians for
3,000 soldiers, they refused, for (among other reasons) fear of dying from
epidemics. (Turkkaya Ataov)
Before the Peace Conference
"...Armenian volunteers fought on all fronts.” In the French
Foreign Legion, “they fought in Syria and in Palestine...[and] constituted the largest
element,...more than one-half of the entire French contingent.” They took “a leading
part in the decisive victory of General Allenby...In the Caucasus, where in addition to
over 150,000 Armenian men who served in the Russian army on all the fronts, an army of
50,000 men and thousands of volunteers fought throughout under the supreme command of
General Nazarbekian.” After the Treaty of Brest Litovsk, “the Armenians...took over
the defense of the Caucasus front and, for...seven months, delayed the advance of the
Turks. They thus rendered important services to the British army in Mesopotamia...[B]y
their resistance against the Turks until the conclusion of the armistice, they forced the
Turks to send troops from Palestine to the Armenian front, and they contributed indirectly
to the victory of the Allied Army in Syria. The Armenians have been actual belligerents in
this war. Their losses...exceed 1,000,000."
“The Armenian Question Before the Peace Conference: A Memorandum
Presented Officially by the Representatives of Armenia to the Peace Conference at
Versailles on February 26, 1919,” The Armenian Review, Vol. XXVII, No. 3-107
(Autumn 1974), p. 231-232. The representatives were Avetis Aharonian, the President of the
Delegation of the independent Republic of Armenia and Bogos Nubar Pasha, the President of
the Armenian National Delegation.(Turkkaya Ataov)
Patriarch Quoted in "Journal d'Orient," 1919
"I hope that the allies will appreciate
the collaboration and loyalty of the Armenian volunteers fighting with them in
Palestine, Caucasian and in other fronts."
" Journal d'Orient" dated February 26 1919 No:191; the speaker was
reported to be "The Armenian patriarch Monsignor Zaven."
Armenian guerillas continued to operate in the mountains "for the
whole four years of the war and caused the Turkish army much trouble."
Nerses S. Sarian, "I Shall Not Die: A Tribute to the Faithfulness of God,"
p. 69. The words are from "an Armenian pastor living in the region," probably
the author Sarian. Guenter Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, A Disputed
Genocide, 2005, p. 102.
Another Refutal of
the Dishonest "Self-Defense" Claim
“Armenian volunteer units had been organized
for the sole purpose of engaging in guerilla activities against the Turks.”
Edward Alexander; "A Crime of Vengeance — An Armenian Struggle for
Justice," 1991, p. 41. Alexander was a U.S. Foreign Service Officer
of Armenian descent; he also served as the Voice of America's Armenian section
At the Ready While Crying Innocent
"The Armenians in History and the Armenian Question," Esat
Uras, p. 636: The Russian Ambassador Giers received the Armenian doctor Zavarian, a
representative of the Dashnaksutiun Revolutionary Committee, who gave the following very
interesting information regarding the readiness of the Armenian Committees to act at the
slightest sign from Russia:
"The Imperial government plays a very important role in the destiny of the Armenian
people. Nevertheless, the Armenians should not lose sight of the exceptional nature of
present conditions and avoid any rash initiative that might aggravate the situation. The
Armenians should appear to Europe as the victims of the arbitrary administration of
Turkish despotism, and should on no account allow themselves to take advantage of Turkey's
military reverses. The Armenians should avoid any provocation of the Turks and should not
undertake the slightest movement of rebellion. At the same time,, they should inform
public opinion through newspapers and statements of the injustices inflicted on the
Armenians by the Kurds and Turkish officials."
A. Mandelstam (Dragoman, Russian Embassy in Istanbul), Le Sort de L'Empire Ottoman,
Paris, 1917. The period referred to appears to be late 1912 to early 1913, in the
aftermath of the disastrous first Balkan War. Giers also advised the Russian Minister for
Foreign Affairs that "the state of anarchy in which Turkey found itself made peaceful
implementations of the reforms (referring to article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin) quite
impossible and that the Russian armies should be kept in readiness for entry into these
An Armenian Confesses
Belligerence, not Victimhood
“An Armenian is not the weak, helpless coward
which his friends and enemies give you to imagine. The Russians have found he makes
a very good soldier … and would not have taken Van so easily the first time if the
Armenian inhabitants had not held the town for more than a month against a far
superior number of Imperialistic Turks. Also conforming to the general standard of
courage, he has in his time been an extremely good, and as effective as possible,
guerilla fighter, bandit and rebel, and since he has been more or less actively
disliking his enemies for the last twenty-five centuries, he is the father of all
patriots, rebels and exiles.”
Dikran Kouyoumdjian, a.k.a. Michael Arlen, “An Appeal to Sense,” The New Age
(British weekly), August 3, 1916, Vol. XIX. No. 14. In a letter to the same magazine
(May 22, 1919, Vol. XXV. No. 4:), Kouyoumdjian added: "Time over again I
have said that Armenia’s punishment has not been entirely undeserved (from the
Turkish point of view), that she has asked for trouble and got it."
Armenians Fighting on
the Side of the Allies
Oral History Proves: TREACHERY & REBELLION