The Hunchaks... and the Dashnaks.
Here were the aims of these murderers, who claimed many Turkish lives as well
as those of uncooperative Armenians ... in the words of (mainly)
|Who Were the
to Louise Nalbandian, a leading Armenian researcher, the Hunchak program stated the
and terror were needed to elevate the spirit of the people. The party aimed at terrorizing
the Ottoman Government, thus contributing toward lowering the prestige of that regime and
working toward its complete disintegration. The Hunchaks wanted to annihilate the most
dangerous of the Armenian and Turkish individuals who were then working for the government
as well as to destroy all spies and informers. To assist them in carrying out all of these
terrorist acts, the party was to organize an exclusive branch specifically devoted to
performing acts of terrorism. The most opportune time to institute the general rebellion
for carrying out the immediate objectives was when Turkey was engaged in war".
Louise, Armenian Revolutionary Movement, University of California Press, 1963]
Who Were the DASHNAKS?
K.S. Papazian wrote as follows of the
"The purpose of the Armenian Revolutionary
Federation (Dashnak) is to achieve political and economic freedom in Turkish Armenia
by means of rebellion. Terrorism has, from the beginning, been adopted by the
Dashnak Committee of the Caucasus, as a policy or a method for achieving its ends.
Under the heading "means" in their program adopted in 1892, Method No. 8
is as follows: "To wage fight and to subject to terrorism the government
officials, the traitors…". Method No 11 is: "To subject the government
institutions to destruction and pillage".
[Papazian, K.S., Patriotism Perverted, Boston
Baker Press, 1934]
|Armenian savagery was not
confined to Muslim targets. They were not happy with the failure of Greeks and Jews to
fully support their revolution. As a result, they massacred thousands of Greeks in the
Trabzon area and hundreds of Jews around the Hakkari region. — Professor
Mumtaz Soysal, Ankara Univ.
One man's "terrorist" is another's
"freedom fighter," and, understandably, "General" Khrimian is a hero
of the Armenians. Even though he betrayed the nation that had allowed his people to
prosper for seven hundred years of primarily Turkish rule.
According to the Armenian site, Mr. Khrimian was of
Sivas, Sepastia... and lived from 1878 to1918. "Will forever be remembered for his
humanitarian deeds by exchanging one gold piece for one Armenian child." He sure
looks like a regular Albert Schweitzer to me.
I don't understand what he would be a
"general" of ; don't the Armenians claim they were helpless, innocent victims...
and any fighting that was done was done out of self-defense? Could Boghos Nubar Pasha have
been right, and were there actually Armenian armies (aside from Russian-Armenians... from
the ranks of those "volunteers") that were formed to fight against their Ottoman
nation... while their nation was pitted in a life and death struggle?
ADDENDUM, 4-06: There were apparently two Murads from Sivas, the other being
Parliamentarian Hamparsum Boyajian,
a Hunchak. Still trying to clear this up. I am wondering if Khrimian was the possible
second Murad, a Dashnak, featured in Toynbee's Blue Book. Christopher Walker (Armenia
— The Survival of a Nation) wrote this Murad was born in 1874, four years earlier
than the above claim, and died on August 5, 1918, in Baku. Pg. 221: After a battle with
Turks, he escaped in autumn 1915 to Batum (with the help of friendly Greeks form the Black
Sea coast). Pg. 403: He was a fedayi leader in the 1904 Sasun rebellion. Also fought in
the 1905 Armeno-Tatar conflict in Nakhichevan and Zangegur. After being present at the
time of the Erzindjan truce in December 1917, he became a leader when the Russian forces
More embellishments, from above
Papazian adds, from Patriotism Perverted (pg. 37):
When the world war broke out in Europe, the Turks began feverish
preparations for joining hands with the Germans. In August 1914 the young Turks
asked the Dashnag Convention, then in session in Erzurum, to carry out their old
agreement of 1907 and start an uprising among the Armenians of the Caucasus against
the Russian government. The Dashnagtzoutune refused to do this and gave assurance
that in the event of war between Russia and Turkey, they would support Turkey as
loyal citizens. On the other hand, they could not be held responsible for the
Russian Armenians.. The fact remains, however, that the leaders
of the Turkish-Armenian section of the Dashnagtzoutune did not carry out their
promise of loyalty to the Turkish cause when the Turks entered the war. The
Dashnagtzoutune in the Caucasus had the upper hand. They were swayed in their
actions by the interests of the Russian government and disregarded, entirely, the
political dangers that the war had created for the Armenians in Turkey. Prudence was
thrown to the winds; even the decision of their own convention of Erzurum was
forgotten and a call was sent for Armenian volunteers to fight the Turks on the
(K.S. Papazian's book is
examined in more detail, below.)
Nalbandian adds, from Armenian Revolutionary Movement:
The programme of the Dashnaksutiun Party (Armenian Revolutionary
Federation) was drafted during the General Congress in 1892. The methods to be used
by the revolutionary bands organized by the Party were as follows:
a.. To propagandize for the principles of the Dashnaksutiun and its objectives based
on an understanding of, and in sympathy with, the revolutionary work.
b.. To organize fighting bands, to work with them with regard to the above-mentioned
issues and to prepare them for activity.
c.. To use every means, by word and deed, to arouse the revolutionary activity and
spirit of the people.
d.. To use every means to arm the people.
e.. To organize revolutionary committees and establish strong links between them.
f.. To stimulate fighting and to terrorize government officials, informers,
traitors, usurers and every kind of exploiter.
g.. To organize financial districts.
h.. To protect the peaceful people and the inhabitants against attacks by brigands.
i.. To establish communications for the transportation of men and arms.
j.. To expose government establishments to looting and destruction (p. 168).
And an embellishment from a more recent
Hratch Dasnabedian wrote in "History of
the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutiun 1890/1924"
Even before 1878, in the regions of
Daron-Sasoun and Vasbouragan there had been underground cells, secret groups, and
bands of "brigands" who fought against government forces. During the
eighties, Khrimian (see photo above) and Mgrdich
Portugalian were active in Van...Expelled from Van in 1885, Mgrdich Portugalian left
the Ottoman Empire and settled in Marseille, where he published the periodical
'Armenia'. His students and friends in Van considered 'Armenia' their voice, and in
1886 established the 'Armenagan' Party, the purpose of which was to 'secure the
sovereignty of the Armenian people through revolution'.
After the Berlin Congress, Armenians became the pawn in the hands
of the British and the Russians to advance their imperial ambitions. When the Tories
handed the power over to the liberals in 1880, British foreign policy underwent
dramatic change against the Ottoman Empire with consulates opening in every corner
of the Eastern Anatolia to improve contact with local Christian population. The
Armenian Patriarch Horen Ashikian wrote in his History of Armenia: "The
Protestant missionaries distributed in large numbers to various places in Turkiye
made propaganda in favour of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy
under British protection." In pursuit of these policies, various Armenian
revolutionary societies were established in Eastern Anatolia as early as 1880.
However, these societies had little influence, as the local Armenians were too
content with their life. Therefore they eventually moved outside the Ottoman
territories establishing the Hunchak Committee at Geneva in 1887 and Dashnak
Committee at Tiflis in 1890, both aiming at 'liberation' from Ottoman rule.
'Terror was to be used as a method of protecting the people and winning their
confidence in the Hunchak program. The Ottoman government itself was not to be the
only focus of terrorist attacks. To assist them in carrying out all of these
terrorist acts, the party was to organise an exclusive branch specifically devoted
to performing acts of terrorism. The most opportune time to institute the general
rebellion for carrying out immediate objectives was when Turkiye was engaged in
'The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak), in order to achieve its purpose
through rebellion, organises revolutionary groups; to wage fight, and to subject to
terrorism the Government officials, the traitors, ... 'to subject the government
institutions to destruction and pillage'.
Thus, as the Armenian writers freely admitted, the goal of their revolutionary
societies was to stir revolution, and their method was terror. This method was
utilised by others during the course of history both before and after the Armenian
revolts. The first incident was at Erzurum in 1890, others following at Kumkapi,
Kayseri, Yozgat, Corum, Merzifon, Sasun, Zeytun, and Van. All these revolts and
riots were presented by the Armenian revolutionary societies in Europe and America
as the killing of Armenians by Turks, stirring up considerable emotion among
Christian peoples. The Armenian propaganda web sites are still using the same tactic
in this day and still gaining recognition by the Western politicians.
Excerpt, Professor Mumtaz Soysal of Ankara University
Hunchaks and Dashnaktsutiun: Revolutionary Parties; Terror as Metho. Nationalism
Spreads From the Church to Secular Organizations
Excerpts (pp 65-66) from the book: A Myth of
An Illustrated Expose by Eric Feigl
The first political party of the Armenian minority to attain any significance was the
"Armenakan- Party. Founded in Van in the autumn of 1885, the party was organized
along European lines and had its own publication.
The mastermind behind this thoroughly revolutionary organization was the son of a
tremendously wealthy banker from Constantinople. His name was Mekertich Portukalian. After
running into many difficulties with schools that he had established in Van, he emigrated
to Marseilles, and from then on he directed his party from there. He also published a
periodical in Marseilles, called "Armenia". His objective was to rouse
enthusiasm for an Armenian state among the Armenians who were scattered across Europe. The
response came in the form of an "Armenian Patriotic Society", which raised money
and bought arms and munitions.
Their aim was to "win for the Armenians the right to rule over themselves, through
'revolution." The members of the Armenakan in Van and the surrounding area were
equipped with the most modem weapons and trained in the art of guerilla warfare and in
"preparing the people for a general movement" with due consideration given to
the support "of friendly great powers". Soon, the Armenakan had revolutionary
cells in Trabzon and Constantinople, as well its cadres in Russia, Persia, and the United
According to the pro-Armenian historian Christopher Walker, the "enlightenment
developed by Portukalian" was soon lost in the "sterile brutality" of the
Armenian terrorist scene.
In 1887, Armenians in Geneva founded the first Armenian party emphasizing Marxist
principles. Their symbol was the bell ( "hnshak" = bell). The Hunchaks drew
their membership almost entirely from Russian Armenians, who gave the party the
militant-revolutionary spirit that comes from the Caucasus (the young Dzhugashvili,
commonly known as Stalin, also came from the world.) The party organ was called Hunchak,
and in 1890 the group adopted the name "Hunchakian Revolutionary Party", or
"Hunchaks" for short. Their leader was the fanatical revolutionary Avetis
Nazarbekian. He was reportedly "dark, slender, very handsome in an oriental style,
and played the violin excellently". He also saw "revolutionary terror" as
the natural consequence of rejecting "capitalist" legislation.
Finally, the "Federation of Armenian Revolutionaries", the "Hai
Hegapokhakanneri Dashnaktsutiun", appeared as a result of the need for an umbrella
organization for all the little terrorist groups and revolutionary cells. The goal of the
organization was (and is) to win Armenian independence by means of a people's war. Many
groups shunned this common umbrella from the start, however, so the Dashnaks changed their
name to "Hai Hegapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun" — "Armenian Revolutionary
Federation". This name is still used by the Dashnaks today.
In the nineteenth century, some Protestant-Armenian pastors had fought bitterly with the
Gregorian priests over who the best nationalist shepherds were. Now, two political groups,
the Dashnaks and the Hunchaks were competing for the favor of the Armenians in the same
way. The Hunchaks stressed their socialist convictions where as the Dasknaks put more
emphasis on their nationalist views. Together, they produce exactly the same fanatically
distorted, national-socialist worldview as other organizations with the same ideological
1905: The "Yildiz attempt" on the sultan's life
The Dashnaks in particular used brutal terrorism again
and again as a political means to accomplish their ends. They have been responsible for
numerous attacks, including some very recent ones. Their activities are financed largely
by means of intimidation and extortion.
One of the ugliest attacks of the Dashnak organization was the
assassination attempt on Sultan Abdul Hamid. The Armenian politician K. Papazian, author
of the book Patriotism Perverted (Boston, 1934), writes that "the attempt of
the life of Abdul Hamid in 1905 constitutes the last episode of the revolutionary attempts
of the A. R. Federation" to achieve political goals by means of assassinations. Since
the attempt failed, its consequences were merely unpleasant. The bombs went off too soon
because the Sultan spent too much time talking to Sheik ul Islam after his visit to the
Yildiz Mosque. The Sultan's pardon of assailants was futile. The troublemakers just turned
to plotting flashy uprising in order to attract European attention.
A Round-Up of Armenian Terror Organizations
"The following list is a spine chilling example of how
some members of an ethnic group can master the act of murder by using devious
methods of deception and channeling American taxpayers’ money into funding their
ruthless terrorist activities."
Hincak (Hunchak): This organization was established in 1884 (other
date: 1886) by Nazarbek and is considered to be the first Armenian
Terror organization. Hincak consists of two divisions; Troyak: ”The Flag” and
Tasnaksiyun ”Unity”. The organisation publishes the “Hincak” paper.
The separatist Social Democrat Armenian organization “Hincak” met in May 1993 in
Beirut. The resolutions adopted at this meeting included cooperation with the
terrorist PKK and launching attacks on Nahcivan
Tasnak (Dashnak): This committee of terror was
formed in Tiflis in 1890. Their aim was to establish a non-communist Armenia and
force Turkish authorities to pay compensations for an alleged genocide. Tasnak
committee and PKK had a meeting in Northern Iraq in May 2000. Tasnak publications
include “Hayrenik”, “Asbarez” and “Armenian Weekly”
Gulbenkyan Foundation: Mr Gulbenkyan was one of the major shareholders in the
Turkish Petroleum Company which was supposed to operate the Iraq oil fields
according to an agreement signed in 1905. Gulbenkyan sold all his shares when the
Ottoman Empire was defeated at the end of WW1 and started
pursuing the dream of establishing an independent Armenian state in Anatolia. The
Foundation is currently working for the religious, territorial and cultural benefit
of the world Armenian community through its offices in London, Lisbon, Beirut and
Jerusalem. Gulbenkyan’s son was given Turkish citizenship in 1915 and given the
title of Honorary Consul to London.
ASALA: (Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia) This group was
established in January 1975 by Agop Agopyan [Hagop Hagopian]
(Killed by rival Armenian terror organizations in 1988) and Agop Tarakciyan (Died of
leukemia in 1980). Command center is in Beirut with branches in Denmark, USA,
Austria, Australia, Syria, Venezuela, France etc. Publications include “Call to
Young”, “Hayastan”, “Hay Hay Baykar”, “Armenia” and “Kaytzer”
The aim of the group is to establish a “Greater Armenia” and secure acceptance
of the alleged genocide in Turkiye. ASALA launches terrorist attacks on Turkish and
Azeri targets. ASALA follows a Marxist-Leninist ideology and claims that other
Armenian organizations are too soft in their approaches. ASALA states that they will
adopt terror campaigns to achieve their goals. Other terror organizations followed
the emergence of ASALA. “New Armenian Resistance Organization” in 1981 in
France, “Azad Hay” in Canada, “Gaitzer” in England all declared that they
will unite with ASALA. The organization was divided into three fractions after the
death of Agopyan in 1988. ASALA-MR, ASALA-PMLA and SASSOON. ASALA groups started
cooperating with Islamic Jihad and PKK since 1983. ASALA-MR: (New ASALA) One of the
leaders of ASALA, Agop Agopyan, started losing control in the organization after
1983. He resorted to internal terror by getting his militant opponents executed,
accusing them of treason. One of those who escaped death was Monte Melkonyan (who
was killed in Azeri town of Agdam in 1993) and Karsik Havaryan. These two
established the New ASALA and accused Agop Agopyan as being a fascist gangster. New
ASALA opposes mass murders and favours targeted attacks.
New Armenian Resistance: This is an arm of ASALA. Their first terror act was
the 1972 bombing of the Turkish Tourism and Information Office in Paris. They also
claimed responsibility for the bombing of the Soviet Information Office in Paris and
Aeroflot office in Brussels. The head office is in France.
Armenian Liberation Front: Was formed as a branch of ASALA in 1979.
Organization was active in training the terrorists who were sent to Turkiye and
Armenian Unity: This organization was formed in 1988 by Vazgen Sisliyan in
Moscow. Has organic links with ASALA and responsible for preparing false documents
for the ASALA members as well as supplying funds for the terror activities. Plays
active role in hiring and arming mercenaries, terrorists and providing safe passage
to the disputed Karabagh region in Azerbaijan.
3 October Group: Thought to have emerged after the appearance of a cell with
the same name in ASALA.
9 June Group: An action group formed in 1991. It is active within ASALA. Main
purpose is to secure the release of detained Armenian Terrorists. The group is
active in Switzerland.
Armenian Liberation Movement: This was established in France in 1991. Acts in
accordance with ASALA. The head office is in Yerevan.
Young Armenians Union: Formed 1990 in France. Carries out lobby activities
directed towards the diplomats and decision makers of the old Soviet Republics in an
effort to facilitate annexing Karabagh into greater Armenia.
GEKO: (Secret Armenian Liberation Organization) Formed in 1975, Beirut.
Controlled by Syrian Armenians. Organizes terrorist acts against Turkish Diplomats.
They claim to have murdered 19 diplomats in the first 6 years.
Democratic Front: This group was formed by the amalgamation of USA, Canada,
Western Europe GEKO groups and the Armenian National Movement. Main aim is the
destruction of Turkish Republic.
Armenian Support Committee for Political Detainees: Established by the
Armenians in France. Declared “Bloody War” against the Swiss government which is
supporting Turkiye. Suicide Commandos: Is famous for the 1981 terrorist attack
against the Turkish Embassy in France.
Armenian Resistance Organization: Established 1997 in Paris, follows a
Armenian Youth Attack Organization: Head office is in Beirut. Publication:
Zortang “Awakening” Controlled by the Armenian church. Active in Algeria, Italy
JCAG (Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos): Thought to have been established
in 1973 in Los Angeles, USA. Branch in Paris. Publication: “Yerevan” Main aim is
to establish an independent and free Armenia. This is the military arm of the Tasnak
Party. Activities are concentrated in European countries and targeted at Turkish
interests. JCAG also uses the name ARA(Armenian Revolutionary Army)
Armenian Revolutionary Army: Beirut based “Armenia” magazine informed in
1984 that ARA claimed responsibility for many specific terrorist activities.
Armenian Popular Movement: Established by Armenians living in Greece. Carries
out anti-Turkish activities. Head office is in Athens.
Freedom Tigers: Established in 1991, organises attacks against villages in
Eagle Organization: Formed by Armenian youth in France in 1981. Lobbies for
the release of Armenian terrorists in various prisons around the world.
Switzerland Organization: A product of recent years. Active in European
countries. Asumed responsibility for 4 terror acts in France, Italy and Greece.
List prepared by Ramil Alekberov, Tamam Newspaper, Baku, Azerbaijan
OF THE DASHNAKS & HUNCHAKS
Now, of all the races of the world, the
Aryan Armenian, possessor of noble reputation,
relying on the power of the gun and the
Church, is waiting in line to slay a few
million God damn Muslims and Jews. God damn
Azeris, we are once and for all going to
wipe you from the face of the earth. This
is a legacy left to us by our holy Aryan
Armenians — Dashnaks and Hunchaks.
Democrat Party of Armenia; see " Hincak," first
on the above list], a Russian-Armenian party/organization, in 2001
|"An Armenian Author on Patriotism Perverted"
Holdwater: I bumped into this
on the Internet, and am tacking it on...
In 1934 a book called Patriotism Perverted was published in Boston by an
Armenian-American author Kapriel Serope Papazian (Baikar Press). " In it he tried to
present to the English-speaking Armenians of the United States and to the American public
in general a picture of an organization called the "Armenian Revolutionary
Federation", or the "Dashnagtzoutune".
K. S. Papazian dedicated it to the memory of those Armenian martyrs who "met death at
the hands of their brothers". That organization had received much publicity in
connection with the assassination in New York of Archbishop Leon Tourian.
Prof. Türkkaya Ataov, an established Ottoman and Turkish history scholar later published
a book called "An Armenian Author on Patriotism Perverted" from which these
pages are taken. Plainly putting into view the Armenian Revolutionary Movement and its
acts, which today's Armenian fanaticism prefers to 'not remember' and biased historians
sweep it under the rug as it contradicts their theories...
Author Papazian thought that "an understanding of the background, past activities,
the purposes and the methods" of the Dashnags would be important. He believed that
the Dashnags' "mode of organization, its discordant mental make-up.., its belief in
the use of violence..its tendency to disregard and distort the will of the majority...
" were all alien to American ideals and Christian principles. He wrote the book to
help create an idea "as to the moral and physical dangers" with which the youth
and the community was "threatened on account of Dashnag activities."
leaders, reportedly from the late 19th Century
The Dashnagtzoutune was organized in the Caucasus, in
1890, through the union of several secret Armenian revolutionary societies. It is
difficult to assert that they shared a common purpose or ideal, which meant different
things for the Armenian rightists and leftists, moderates and radicals. Although for some,
this might have meant "some measure of autonomy" (p. 9), author Papazian accepts
elsewhere (p. 31) in the same book that the Armenian Patriarchs of Istanbul, under age-old
firmans of the Sultans, enjoyed privileges, "according to which the Armenians were
given some sort of autonomy in ecclesiastical, educational arid purely Armenian community
affairs." Papazian states that "from the very beginning, the society (Dashnags)
has lacked consistency of purpose and method, and opportunism and lack of common sense
have characterized most of its actions." (p. 1l)
Papazian describes the organization of the Dashnags as being "democratic in form
only" (p.11). He says that its various committees and conventions were "little
more than debating societies and providers of money". The actual direction of
affairs, he believes, "had rested in the hands of a secret Bureau", with
headquarters in Geneva. The common members were not encouraged to communicate with each
other or with committees. This did away with criticism and independent thinking (p.12).
The leaders of the official bodies could withhold facts and information from the rank and
file. Hence, many plots, intrigues, conspiracies and terroristic enterprises were kept
secret from the members (p. 13). Many innocent members were made co-partners in plots
without knowing the purposes behind them. This "privilege of secrecy" has been
gravely abused by the Dashnag leaders.
co-founders: Stephan Zorian,
Christophor Mikaelian and Simeon
Zavarian. (Alt. spelling: Rostom Zorian,
Christaphor Melikian, & Simon Zavarian.)
Vahakn Dadrian's Zoryan
likely named after the Dashank leader.
Papazian says that "'self-interest governed the
policies of the Dashnagtzoutune". Opportunists placed themselves at the helm of the
organization, and "even criminal methods were resorted to..." (p. 14).
"Terrorism has, from the start been, adopted by the Dashnag Committee of the
Caucasus. '' Papazian underlines that the "Dashnag publications are full of stories
of terroristic exploits" (p.15). The Program, adopted in 1892, states that they
believe in terrorizing government officials and subjecting government institutions to
destruction and pillage. Papazian quotes several Armenian and other sources to prove that,
at first, terroristic methods were resorted to in order to obtain money, then used to
intimidate prominent men and exterminate officials.
For instance, in the summer of 1902, a Dashnag "storm" squad
"arrested" the well-to-do Isahag Jamharian and took him to a lonely spot outside
the city of Shousha. He was set free when he promised to pay 30,000 rubles. But he
notified the police. He was stabbed to death inside an Armenian church in Moscow. M.
Varandian, a historian of the Dashnags, (1)writes that the traitor has paid for his sin.
In Papazian's evaluation, "Jamharian had committed the sin of defending himself"
(p.16). He was a traitor in 1902, and is still a traitor for the Dashnag historian
Varandian, writing in 1932. Papazian says: "All those who disagreed with the Dashnag
leaders, or against whom the local Dashnag chiefs nourished a grudge, were denounced as
traitors..." Mateos Baliozian, a merchant of Izmir, was thus denounced. (2) The same
terroristic methods were also used within the ranks of Dashnag leaders for differences of
opinion and to satisfy personal grudges. In 1891, for example,
Gerektzian was killed in Erzurum by the decision of the local Central Committee, whose
members cast lots, and the lot fell on Aram Aramian, who killed Gerektzian. (3) According
to Papazian, The Dashnags were "very prolific in organizing and carrying out
terroristic acts " (p.17). Terrorism against their own co-nationals has been a
prominent part of the activities of the Dashnags. Varandian exalts terroristic activities
in. the following words: "...Perhaps there has never been a revolutionary party-not
even the Russian Narodovoletz, or the Italian Carbonaris-with such experien-ces on the
road of terroristic acts, as the A.R. Federation..."(4) Papazian concludes: "One
of the most unfortunate results of these terroristic methods was the gradual development
of a class of terrorists, who used their bullets and dagger indiscriminately.. This class
of terrorists enjoyed a place of honor within the society" (p.18). They killed Mihran
in 1909. (5) They shot and stabbed to death Abbot Arsen Vartabed of the Akhtamar Monastery
(near Van) and his secretary Mihram in 1904. They then dismembered their bodies and threw
them into Lake Van. Abbot Vartabed had opposed the designs of Ishkan, a notorious Dashnag
chieftain, who wanted to control the property and the income of the monastery. Papazian
adds: "After his death, Ishkan and his gang pillaged the ancient monastery"
(pp.68-69). Dehertzi David was a very trustworthy man in the ranks of the Dashnags in Van.
He was sent to Iran on a secret mission. Returning to Van he found that his fiancee had
been gravely mistreated by Aram, the chief Dashnag leader in the district. He was disarmed
and imprisoned at Aram's order, but escaped. Maddened with thoughts of revenge, he
confessed to the Turkish authorities. He was killed by the Dashnags in 1908 (p. 69).
Garjgantzi Manoug, a former Dashnag, who had opposed the arbitrary acts of the leader, was
murdered in 1910. Bedros
Capamajian was likewise shot and killed one winter night in 1912 while getting into
his carriage with his wife and daughter.
Hampartzoum Arakelian the well-known seventy-year old editor of the journal Mushag of
Tiflis (Tbilisi), "whose biting pen and sarcasm", in the words of Papazian,
"had mercifully lashed the Dashnag stupidity and arbitrariness for many years,"
was killed in his bed one night in 1918 by terrorists. Garjigian, "a Dashnag of high
rank, who occupied a ministerial chair in the newly formed Armenian Republic at
Erivan", was killed in 1918 by another Dashnag, Egor Der Minasian (pp.69-70). Bedros
Atamian, the manager of the Ramgavar paper Nor Alik, was stabbed to death on a street in
Salonica (Greece) in 1926. Dekhruni, a Hunchagist was shot to death in Athens in 1933.
Mihran Aghazarian, a Hunchagist editor, was killed in Beirut also in 1933.
The Dashnags adopted the methods of sensational, sporadic and partisan fights inside
Turkey. They decided on an attack on the Imperial Ottoman Bank. In August 1896, a group of young men entered the Bank in
Istanbul, subdued the employees and threatened to blow it up. Through the intervention of
the Tsarist Russian Embassy, they were safely escorted out and placed on board a French
steamer. The Dashnag leader clung to the idea that such terroristic acts would bring
European intervention in favour of the Armenians. Papazian says that they ignored
"the people of Turkish Armenia," that they "never took the trouble of
inquiring into the actual conditions" of the Armenians and that they never consulted
them. "They pursued their own disastrous methods" (p.2l).
Papazian refers to another "futile expedition" which he calls the "fiasco
of Khanasor." He describes the "Khanasor expedition" as the "result of
the machinations of the Russian authorities, whose purpose was to encourage political
unrest and turmoil along the eastern borders of Turkey.'' He says that the Dashnag leaders
of Tiflis were "playing the game of the Russian government.'' In November 1897, about
250 Armenians attacked the camp of the Mazrik tribe in the Plain of Khanasor and set fire
to the nearest tents, killing some. The main body of the tribe, however, drove back the
attackers, who in their confusion fired upon each other. The Dashnags declared Sharaf Bey,
the tribal chief, dead, celebrating the "glorious victors" -although he rived
another twenty, years, and the episode itself was a retreat and a failure. Similar
terroristic acts, involving sacrifices of human life, failed to lead to "European
intervention". Papazian states that had the attempt on the life of the Ottoman Sultan
Abdulhamid II been successful, this "would not have helped the Armenian cause"
in Argentina actually got their government's postal system
to honor the Dashnak terror group
Papazian concludes: "Years of futile and
wasteful struggle against the Turkish Governments finally forced the scholastic leaders of
the Dashnagtzoutune, who had directed the struggle from their safe refuges of Geneva and
Tiflis, to admit their defeat, but not their ignorance" (p. 25). The Dashnag
flirtation with "socialism" angered the Russian Government and failed to attract
the support of the European socialists. "The net result," says Papazian,
"was a tremendous waste of energy and internal dissensions" (p. 31).
According to Papazian, the Dashnags also agitated against the Armenian church in Turkey.
He adds: "In a great many instances, the Dashnag leaders made their henchmen break
into the churches, fling open the doors and start their political meetings..." (p.
35). He mentions that at least in one instance, "two Armenians who wanted to protect
the church of Smyrna from being sacrileged (violated), were shot and killed on the spot by
When the First World War broke out in Europe, the Dashnagtzoutune gave assurances to the
Turks that in the event of a war between Tsarist Russia and the Ottoman Empire, they would
support the latter as loyal citizens (p.37). However, they did not keep their promise of
loyalty (p.38). "They were swayed in their actions by the interests of the Russian
Government..even the decisions of their own convention of Erzurum was forgotten, and a
call was sent for Armenian volunteers to fight the Turks on the Caucasian front"
(p.38). Papazian adds that the "Armenian volunteer regiments rendered valuable
services to the Russian Army" in the years 1914-1916. "The methods used by the
Dashnagtzoutune in recruiting these regiments were so open and flagrant that it would not
escape the attention of the Turkish authorities." Armen Garo, a Dashnag leader
(whose real name was Karakin Pastirmadjian, one of those who invaded the Ottoman Bank in
1896), also a member of the Ottoman Parliament, had taken an active part in the
organization of volunteer regiments to fight the Turks. His picture was circulated in the
Dashnag papers (p.39). Papazian concludes that the representatives of the Armenians in
Turkey, the Patriarchate and its organs were not consulted in adopting these policies.
Although the Armenians rendered service to the Russian forces, the latter did not help the
Armenian cause. They kept the conquered Ottoman provinces in the East for themselves, and
after the Bolshevik Revolution, their army abandoned the front. The Armenians declared the
independence of Armenia on the Caucasus, recognized by the Turks on June 4, 1918 by the
Treaty of Batoum. "The Dashnag party found itself in the saddle" (p. 40). Used
to violent methods, "they failed to show any ability for government and
statesmanship... They tyrannized the people and defied the government" (p.41). In
support of his statements, Papazian quotes the report of General Harbord's Commission
(U.S.) and the words of Hovhannes Katchaznouni, (6) the first Prime Minister of the
Armenian Republic. He notes that in internal affairs, the Dashnag government "failed
to establish peace and a minimum of law and order" (p. 42). Externally, it waged
three wars in two-and-a-half years. (p.43). The war in Georgia "caused untold
calamity to Armenia" (p. 44). The war with Azerbaijan "ended disastrously for
the Armenians." The war with Turkey was "the outcome of the Act of May 28,
1919," by which the Armenian Republic claimed Eastern Anatolia. This proclamation
claimed that eastern Anatolia "united" (p.47) with the existing Armenian
Republic. Papazian continues: "If we remember that the existing Republic was
recognized by the Turks under the Treaty of Batoum, in which the Russian-Armenian envoys
renounced all territorial claims over Western Armenia, we can readily comprehend why the
Turks regarded the Act of May 28, 1919, as a provocation of war" (p.45). He adds that
the Armenian Government "created an immediate occasion for conflict by occupying the
district of Oltu." He also says the arrogant attitude of the Armenian Government
toward Soviet Russia in 1920 deprived the small republic of a strong and natural ally.
The Treaty of Sèvres, which recognized Armenia, was signed on August 10, 1920, by the
representatives of the Armenian Republic. "The same men were to repudiate the Sèvres
Treaty and the claims of Armenians in Turkey by signing the Treaty of Alexandropol on
December 2,1920" (p.48). Papazian says that the text of this treaty has not been
published by those responsible for it, that neither A.Khatisian (the head of the Armenian
delegation that signed the Treaty), nor S.Vratzian (the head of the Armenian Government at
the time), who have both written voluminous histories of the Armenian Republic, embody the
text of the Treaty in their books (p. 74). Article 3 of the Treaty states: "As it is
evident from Turkish, Russian and all other world statistics, and from the established
social situation, we again, on this occasion, confirm that there is no territory within
the Ottoman borders where the Armenians form a majority" (pp.74-75). Article 9 said
that the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey refrained from demanding
indemnities although it had a "right to demand indemnities as a result of the war
against Armenia which it has been compelled to wage." Article 11 declared the Sèvres
Treaty "null and void." The same article stipulated that the Armenian Government
undertook ''to withdraw its delegations in Europe and America, that are tools in the hands
of certain imperialistic governments and circles." Article 15 mentioned that the
Armenian Republic agreed "to consider as null and void all those stipulations of
treaties she has signed with any power, which relate to Turkey and are against the
interests of Turkey" (p. 77).
The Bolsheviks entered Armenia without any resistance. This was the decision of the
Dashnags. They were driven out of authority in the new Soviet Armenian Republic (p.49).
But they could not reconcile themselves to the idea of being out of power. On February 18,
1921, a rebellion under the leadership of Simon Vratzian broke out in Armenia against the
Bolsheviks when the Bolshevik forces were temporarily driven out of Armenia. Not sure of
his own ability to hold out against them, he "sought military assistance from the
Turks" (p. 50). On March 18, 1921, he sent to Ankara a formal appeal asking the
Turkish Government whether it "finds it possible to send military aid to, Arme-nia;
and if able to do so, to what extent and when?" (p.50-51). Papazian gives the
complete text of this appeal by Vratzian as Appendix V in his book (pp 77-78). Papazian
significantly points out that the "appeal of Vratzian as the president of the newly
formed Armenian Government was virtually the ratification of the Treaty of Alexandropol,
by which the Dashnag leaders declared to the whole world that Armenia has denounced all
her demands on Turkey and has no more cause of dispute" (p.51). Coming back to the
armed conflict with the Soviets, "there was much bloodshed, until the Dashnags were
again defeated by the Bolsheviks and driven out of the country."
Papazian, on the other hand, states that the newly-formed Armenia on the Caucasus
"was really the beginning of a political future for the Armenian people" (p.54).
The criticism leveled by the Dashnags at Soviet Armenia that "it is not independent,
and that it is not a national government, have, according to Papazian, "no ground to
stand upon'' (p.55). He recalls: "The Dashnags themselves, while they were at the
helm, tried to place Armenia under the protection of some great power...Armenia has now
secured its political existence..as one of the federated republics."
Papazian devotes several pages (pp.60-65, 71-73) to the Dashnagtzoutune attempts to
terrorize the Armenian church and the diaspora into submission. He mentions a number of
acts of violence, including assaults and even murders, in the United States, Egypt, Syria
and Greece. He compares their language, mentality and actions to those of the Mafia and
the underworld gangsters (p. 64, 67). He concludes:" Its hands are raised against
everybody, its plots and crimes have rocked the conscience of all decent Armenians, and
have disgraced our people before the civilized world" (p. 67).
(Holdwater: relevant articles of the Gumru-Alexandropol
Treaty, as well as the text of Vratzian's plea for help, may be found on this page.)
1-History of the Dashnagtzoutune, t.1, Paris 1932 p. 3Z5-327.
2-Ibid., p. 450
3-Ibid., p. 86
4-Ibid., p. 491
5-Ibid., p. 491
6-See: Turkkaya Ataov, An Armenian Source; Hovhannes Katchaznouni, Ankara, 1984.
Source: An Armenian Author on "Patriotism Perverted", Professor Türkkaya Ataov
“A person who is not Dashnak, that person is not Armenian”
So says a Dashnak, as
written "in a medieval manuscript written in a flowery decorative way by Movses
Khorenatsi (an Armenian historian of the 5th century), destroyed by Turks." (Holdwater: Oh. How convenient. The thing can't be found, so
blame the Turks... as usual.) "In the 17th century a clergyman copied
those lines and left it as a covenant to his disciple. This fact became known to my
Dashnak acquaintance lately when there was a flow of documents from an archive of a
foreign country and the saint clergyman’s copied piece of paper was spread." (Holdwater: Well, I guess that must prove it. We will simply
try not to think about the little fact that the Dashnak organization came into being
in the tail end of the 19th century.)
Michael Gunter's Armenian Terrorism in the 20th