The bigoted American and Western press
naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the
perspective of Armenian and WWI propaganda. But even with some of these
articles, the inconsistencies of the "genocide" tale slipped
through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians'
belligerence. As we know, the two big "genocides" committed were in
the mid-1980s and 1915-16. Save for the Adana incidents of 1909 (also presented as a sort of
"genocide," where we are told innocent Armenians were massacred for
no reason, neglecting the usual fact that the Armenians fired the first shot),
the 1900s are frequently bypassed. Yet the Armenians were very active,
practicing their familiar methods of terror and murder. Sometimes the press
reported their terrorism against Azeris (when Armenians did not like the
status quo in Baku, where the Azeri Turks were rich and Armenians were the
workers, and they engaged in the "Armenian-Tatar" War of 1905... yet
another episode presented as poor, innocent Armenians getting picked on), but
as you will see on this page, the terrorist Armenians were very busy with the
Ottoman Turks. (And sometimes Russians, as well.)
Many thanks to Gokalp.
This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest,
taking place during the decade of the 1900s. (For 1900s accounts of general
Armenian terror, visit TAT's
other 1900s news page.)
1) Antranik Seizes Armenian Convent
2) Fifty Terrorists Set Fire
to Muslim Town; Blow Up Barracks
3) Turkey Disquieted by Armed Armenians
4) Assailants of Galatzin
5) Hamid's Sleep Comes High
/ Russianizing the Armenians
6) Bomb Thrown Among Russians
7) Fighting in Turkey, Battle with Armenian Rebels
8) Destroy Many Towns / Turks Lose 136
9) Armenians Fight Turks
10) Armenians Kill Turks
10b) Armenians on War Path
11) Trains Derailed and Thrown Over Precipice
12) Real Revolution There
13) Powers Give Approval / Russian Slaughter of Jews
14) Officers Raid a Bomb Factory
15) Armenians massacred forty-two
16) Commissioned to Kill
17) American Penal Practice, 1906: Ball and Chain
18) Daring Revolutionary Plot
19) Four Villages Reduced to Ashes
20) Turk Troops Wipe Out Greek Insurgents
21) The New Woman in Turkey
Antranik Seizes Armenian Convent
The Idaho Daily Statesman, Nov. 24, 1901 (Also in Mountain Democrat,
Dec. 7, 1901)
Constantinople, Nov. 23.— A band of Armenian revolutionists commanded by an
individual named Andranik has seized the Armenian convent in the neighborhood of
Mush and is now entrenched therein. The convent Is surrounded by troops.
The Decatur Review (Illinois), Nov. 25, 1901
Armenian revolutionists seized a convent near Mush and defied the Turkish troops.
The sultan of Turkey protests against the constant intermeddling of foreign nations
in Turkish affairs, declaring it will be impossible for him to carry out reforms
until the foreign governments learn to keep their hands off.
The Des Moines Daily Leader, Nov. 11, 1901
AN UNSATISFACTORY EXPLANATION
Representative of the Porte Tells of the Seizure of a Convent.
London, Nov. 26.— Costaki Anthopulo Pacha, the Turkish ambassador to Great
Britain, has given out the porte's explanation of the seizure of an Armenian convent
in the neighborhood of Mush by Armenian revolutionists, and the subsequent
surrounding of the convent by Turkish troops. The ambassor [sic] says that bandits
have been ravaging the country and extorting money and goods from the Armenian
population, murdering those who refused to comply with their demands. These bandits
brought about sixty women and children as prisoners to the monastery, and Andranika,
the leader of the bandits, tried to obtain money by threats from the Armenians of
Thereupon, in order to protect the women and children, the imperial authorities
surrounded the monastery with Turkish troops. Some fighting occurred, during which
two brigands and a Turkish corporal were killed. British and Russian consuls
repaired to the scene and testified to the correct attitude of the Turkish soldiers.
The brigands kept up a hot fire from the monastery, and being well provisioned, they
were able to offer a stout resistance.
This official statement from the Turkish ambassador does not explain how the affair
ended, but a despatch received subsequently from Constantinople says that the
brigands fled and the Turkish troops were withdrawn.
Holdwater: Note the insulting headline. Too bad these bigoted newspapers
couldn't do without the editorializing in their presentation of the news. They had
to get their zingers in there, reminding readers that anything coming from Turkish
sources couldn't be trusted. In view of what we know of how these terrorists
operated, there is nothing in the statement that sounds suspicious.
Pretty cool that the Ottoman ambassador to Britain was Greek, as was the ambassador
(termed a "minister," actually; he's the one missionary Cyrus Hamlin tried
to paint as a traitor to his
Ottoman nation) to the USA. These were not far from the days when a Catholic would
be lucky to be elected as dog catcher in United States politics.
| Fifty Terrorists Set Fire to Muslim Town; Blow Up Barracks
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, Sept. 11, 1901
PREPARING THE PUBLIC
Constantinople, Tuesday, Sept. 10. Fifty Armenian revolutionists, according to Turkish
reports, recently set fire to the Mussulman quarters at Mush, Turkish Armenia, where
fighting afterward occurred, the Armenians retiring toward Sassoun. It is also reported
that on September 3 Armenians and Turks blew up the barracks at Sassoun, where 3,000
troops were stationed, and that a state of panic prevailed there in consequence. Such
Turkish reports have previously been forerunners of massacres of Armenians, and it is
generally apprehended by non-Mussulmans here that massacres have already taken place.
Holdwater: So here we have Armenians behaving criminally, and
the newspaper makes sure to let us know it's all a front to hide the criminal acts of the
Turks committed or sure to follow.
DISQUIETED BY ARMED ARMENIANS
The Weekly Sentinel, May 20, 1903
(Also in The Lima Times Democrat May 16, 1903: DISQUIET PREVALENT Among
Turks Over the Invasions by Armed Bands of Armenians; The Daily Northwestern,
May 16, 1903: ARMENIAN BANDS ACTIVE. THEY CROSS INTO TURKEY FROM RUSSIAN
TERRITORY AND HIDE IN MOUNTAINS. The Officials of the Porte Are Disquieted, Fearing
a Reprisal of Revolutionary Efforts. This one has following addition:
"Rome, May 16.—It is reported that Turkey has agreed to buy two warships
which have been built for the Argentine republic." Another two carrying the
same article were The Fort Wayne Sentinel, May16-1903, and The Oakland
Tribune, May 16, 1903: JAILS ARE OVERFLOWING WITH PRISONERS. Bulgarians are
Getting a Rough Deal at the Hands of the Turks. The latter two also carried
accounts of Jews mistreated/massacred in Bessarabia. See below.)
TURKEY DISQUIETED BY ARMED ARMENIANS
Invasion of Warlike Bands is Said to Proceed from Russian Territory.
Constantinople, May 16.—The Turkish authorities are disquieted at the recent
appearance of bands of Armenian revolutionists, coming from Russia, in the districts
of Bayazid and Sausun, Armenia, and are adopting rigorous measures to guard the
frontier. The Armenians cross in small parties in the neighborhood of Bayazid and
thence they make their way to the Sausun mountains, where they are safe from
pursuit. It is alleged here that the Russian authorities of Kars, Asiatic Russia,
are aware of the movement of the Armenian revolutionists, but that they do not
interfere. It is believed that the appearance of these bands indicates a revival of
activity on the part of the old Armenian committees, who are understood to be
anxious to be in a position to take advantage of possible complications arising from
the Macedonian situation, in which case the claims of the Armenians will be revived
and the same advantages gained by the Macedonians from European intervention will be
demanded for Armenia.
The Turkish government has notified the Bulgarian exarch that Gerassimos, bishop of
Strumitza, Macedonia, has been removed and has invited the exarch to appoint his
successor. The exarch, however, refused to recognize the authority of the Turkish
government to remove the bishop and has advised Gerassimo, who is practically a
prisoner in his own house, to remain firm. It is alleged that Bishop Gerassimos is a
supporter of the Macedonian movement, but it is also stated that the charges are
brought by the jealous Greek clergy.
The prisons of Macedonia are overflowing with Bulgarians, the Turkish authorities
hoping to thereby paralyze the action of the Macedonian committees.
It was announced today that Turkish troops, entered Ipek, Albania yesterday and not
May 8, as previously announced, after meeting with strong opposition.
| Assailants of Galatzin
The Lima Times Democrat, Oct. 30, 1903
ASSAILANTS OF GALATZIN.
Three in Number Have Been Identified by the Authorities.
Tiflis Russian Trans-Caucasia. Oct. 30.— The three men who attacked Prlnce
Galatzin, the governor of the Caucasus, on the outskirts of this city Tuesday, while
he was driving with his wife, and who were subsequently killed by Cossacks, have
been identified as belonging to the lower class of Armenians.
Holdwater: Galitzin (who had little mercy for
Armenians) was seriously wounded, and was replaced by Vorontsov-Dashkov. The Hunchak
background of the assassins was missed by this news report, which was ironic; the
other front page news item (“ARMENIAN IDENTIFIED”) regarded the arrest of
Krikorian, on suspicion of the murder of Sagouni, which was creating a big fuss in
the newspapers, uncovering the terrorist nature of the Hunchaks. See more on the
"1900s" page focusing on terror reportage.
| Hamid's Sleep Comes High / Russianizing the Armenians
Sandusky Evening Star, Oct. 2, 1903
His Sleep Comes High
illustration of Abdul Hamid accompanied
Probably no ruler on earth has more cause to feel uneasy when
bedtime comes than the sultan of Turkey. Abdul Hamid shows that he doesn't feel safe when
asleep by requiring a guard of several officers and a score of private soldiers in and
about his bedroom at night. It is estimated that the sultan's nocturnal guard costs
expressed in American terms, $900 a night, and the officials [??] get their wages every
This expensive guard his been maintained by the sultan since the assassination of the king
and queen of Servia. Of course the timorous ruler of Turkey always has bten particularly
well guarded at night but the murders at Belgrade scared Abdul Hamid almost out of Us wits
and he at once established his high priced guard. The command of the guard is intrusted to
eight of the sultan's most faithful generals, two of whom are on duty every night.
Holdwater: An 1896 newspaper report told us the sultan was so broke, he couldn't afford to pay
these guards. You know you're in trouble as a monarch when you can't pony up a lousy grand
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(And on the same page:)
(Eradication?) of Armenia.
Apparently the czar is having somewhat more difficulty in Russianizing the Armenians than
he is in Russianizing the Finns. While the latter do not take kindly to the process, they
have no Mafia and they do not resort to the knife. Their resistance is so far confined to
mere protest and to immigration to the United States.
With the Armenians it is different. The trouble in that quarter is religious, racial and
political, and is causing no little discomfiture to the czar's government. The Russian
frontier has in recent years been advanced to take in about one third of the Armenian
race. With the last advance of the Russian line there was a general movement of the
Armenians from Turkish territory to the Russian side, as the people believed that,
whatever their political status might be under the Russian flag, they would at least be
free to practice their religion. Their church is older than the Russian church, older than
the Roman church. But the Russians have been "converting" by means which the
Armenians regard as practically a coercion many Armenians to their own form ot
Christianity. A recent Russian decree has handed over the property of the Armenian
national church in in Transcaucasia to the Russian civil administration, an act which can
only be regarded as a step toward the suppression of the church altogether.
The response of the Armenians is one of assassination, and Russian officials and
ecclesiastics are falling victims, as the Russians themselves, to revolutionists from
Turkish territory. In this collision with the Armenian national movement the Russians are
in a sense hoist by their own petard for the Turkish government has been complaining for
the last dozen years of the propaganda carried on in their dominions by Armenian
revolutionists from Russian Transcaucasia. Meanwhile there seems to be no safe ground for
the Armenian except in America, and, though tbey are permitted to find asylum here, they
are less welcome than are the hardy and industrious Finns.
Holdwater: the report makes it seem as though the Armenians
were not free to practice their religion in the Ottoman Empire ("... the people
believed that, whatever their political status might be under the Russian flag, they would
at least be free to practice their religion"), which was terribly unfair and inaccurate. The reason why the
Armenians moved was because their terrorist leaders were working on their people's rabid
nationalism, as well as their racist hatred of Turks, and the ones who moved stupidly
figured they would be allowed to live in a sort of independent Armenia. Many regretted
their decision later, as their lives were infinitely
better in the Ottoman Empire. One description that's great in the above is that
Armenians have a "Mafia."
Thrown Among Russians
Sandusky Star, Feb. 17, 1904
Was Thrown Among Russians Who Were Praying for Victory.
Berlin, Feb 17. — Lokal Anzeiger reports that during divine service at Baku in
Russian Trans Caucasia to-day while prayers were being offered for a Russian victory
in the far east. Armenian revolutionists hurled a bomb into the congregation. Three
persons were killed and many injured.
Holdwater: The identity of the bomb thrower may not
have been known, but we don't need to guess very hard.
| Fighting in Turkey, Battle with Armenian Rebels
The News (Frederick, Maryland), May 2, 1904
FIGHTING IN TURKEY
Troops Lose 20 Killed and 23 Wounded in Battle With Armenian Rebels.
Constantinople, May 2.— According to official advices there has been serious fighting In
the Sassun district of Asia Minor between the troops and Armenia insurgents numbering
2000. The troops lost 20 killed and 23 wounded. Twelve villages in the Talori district ,
have been destroyed, but whether by insurgents or Kurds Is not known.
There are 10,000 troops in the disturbed area.
Private advices say that the Kurds attacked two villages north of Sassun, losing 26
[The Sassun district of Asia Minor became notorious in 1894 because of a series of
massacres of Armenians by Kurds. In the same year there were massacres of Armenians In the
neighboring districts of Bitlis and Mush.]
Holdwater: Usually, whenever there was the rare report of
Armenian belligerence, they would stick in a reminder (from "Private advices,"
this time) that the poor, innocent Armenians were once again being brutalized.
Many Towns / Turks Lose 136
The Iowa Recorder, June 01, 1904
Destroy Many Towns.
According to a dispatch from the Vali of Bitlis, Asiatic Turkey, seventeen villages
have been destroyed by Armenian insurgents in the district of Sassun. More than 600
Armenian families have taken refuge at Mush, a town in Bitlis.
The New York Times, May 19, 1904
TURKS LOSE 136 IN BATTLE.
Fight with Armenians in Mush District -Sassoun Laid Waste.
LONDON, May 19.— The Central News correspondent at Baku, Caucasia, reports a
serious fight between Armenians and Turkish troops at Chelcuzan, in the district of
The Turks lost 136 killed and wounded, while the.Armenians had their leader and many
CONSTANTINOPLE, May 18.— According to a dispatch from the Vali of Bitlis, Asiatic
Turkey, seventeen villages have been destroyed by Armenian insurgents in the
district of Sassoun.
More than 600 Armenian families have taken refuge in Mush, a town in Bitlls.
| Armenians Fight Turks
The Post-Standard, Syracuse, N.Y., September 6, 1904
ARMENIAN INSURGENTS RESISTING THE TURKS.
Uprising Reported at Van in Asiatic Turkey.
The Washington Post SEPTEMBER 6, 1904, p. 1
ARMENIANS FIGHT TURKS.
Insurgents Successfully Resisting Sultan's Troops at Van.
Paris, Sept. 5 — A despatch to the Temps from Constantinople, by way of Sofia,
says that an official report which has reached one of the foreign consuls there
states that Armenian insurgents at Van, Asiatic Turkey, are successfully resisting
the Turkish troops, which until yesterday had been unable to reduce or disperse
them. The Armenians advanced to within about 400 yards of the French consulate. The
population of Van is seeking refuge in the schools and convents. It is expected that
Turkey will mobilize the Fourth Army Corps and draw troops from Asia Minor in order
to suppress the uprising.
It was announced from Constantinople September 2 that a fierce flght between
Armenian insurgents and Turkish troops had occurred at Van August 31, and that more
than a score were killed. About 150 Armenians raided the town, captured four houses,
and barricaded themselves. Troops attacked the houses, and in the fight which
followed two soldiers and twenty other persons were killed The authorities set fire
to a number of adjoining houses, so that the troops might be better enabled to
besiege the insurgents. It was said by the authorities that other Armenian bands
were preparing to cross the Persian frontier.
Holdwater: This was exactly the type of occurrence,
where Turkish law officers were performing their duty in confronting these
criminals, that would normally be reported in the Western press as a
"massacre." For example, we can easily imagine the Armenians who would
tearfully tell this tale to missionaries or consuls, referring to the houses set
afire as done out of the usual Turkish barbarity. This one story got through with
some accuracy, remarkably enough.
| Armenians Kill Turks
The account below was reported in many newspapers, and the short and long versions may be
seen. The Manitoba Free Press (Aug. 10) and The Daily Huronite (Aug. 12)
blared: ARMENIANS AVENGE TURKISH ATROCITIES. Troops Destroy Five Villages — Armenians
Slaughter Two Garrisons. The Frederick News (Aug. 10)'s version: TURKISH
TROOPS ANNIHILATED. Destroyed Several Villages and Were Slain By Armenians.
The Anaconda Standard, Aug. 10, went halfsies (ARMENIANS AND TURKS BUTCHERING
EACH OTHER) while The Indiana Democrat, Aug. 17, could not resist the typical
Terrible Turk slant: ARMENIANS AND TURKS FIGHT. Turks Destroy Villages and Massacre the
Here is the way The Daily Huronite, Aug. 12,1904, and The Bismarck Daily Tribune,
Aug. 11, put it:
ARMENIANS KILL TURKS.
Several Hundred Soldiers Slain by Insurgents.
London, Aug. 11.— The Tabriz, Persia, correspondent of the Daily News, in a dispatch
dated Aug. 6, says:
"On July 13 a band of Armenian revolutionists appeared near Outchkilissa. Turkish
soldiers and Kurds, finding an excuse, attacked and. destroyed the villages of of
Outchkilissa, Koomlouboujak, Gougan, Karabazar, and Savto butchering men and outraging
"Two large Armenian bands. marching to Sassoun to help the insurgent leader Antranlk,
attacked the garrisons at Mossunzory and Goutchagh for revenge on July 25. At dawn bombs
were thrown into these places, killing many, and severe fighting ensued. A majority of the
soldiers were killed, and the garrisons resembled graveyards. One band forced its way
through the Kurdish tribes towards Arjess. The number of soldiers killed amounted lo
(The long version)
The Washington Post, front page, August 10, 1904
SLAIN WITH BOMBS
Turkish Garrisons Attacked by Armenian Rebels.
REVENGE FOR MASSACRE
Several Hundred Soldiers Killed in Fighting Around Sassun.
Destruction of Five Villages and Massacre of the Male Population Followed by Desperate and
Successful Counter Attack- No Reply to Secretary Hay's Note Yet Received from the Porte--
Our Stand Justified at Berlin.
London, Aug. 10.— The Tabriz, Persia, correspondent of the Daily News, in a dispatch
dated August 6, says:
"On July 3 a band of Armenian revolutionists appeared near Outchkillasa. Turkish
soldiers and Kurds, finding an excuse, attacked and destroyed the villages of Outchkilissa,
Koomlouboujak, Gougan, Karabazar, and Savto, butchering men and outraging women.
"Two large Armenian bands marched to Sassun to help the insurgent leader Antranik
attack the garrison at Mossunsory and Goutchagh for revenge on July 25. At dawn bombs were
thrown into these places, killing many, and severe fighting ensued. A majority of the
soldiers were killed and the garrisons resembled graveyards. One band forced Its way
through the Kurdish tribes towards Arjess.
"The number of soldiers killed amounted to several hundred."
Demands Not Yet Granted.
Constantinople, Monday, Aug. 8.-The American Legation has not yet received a reply from
the porte regarding the demand upon the Turkish government for the same favored treatment
in the matter of schools, hospitals, and charitable institutions accorded to other powers.
However, it is anticipated by diplomats that the demands will be granted before the
arrival of the American squadron at Smyrna.
Berlin, Aug. 9.-Secretary Hay's course toward Turkey, according to the official view here.
is fully justifiable. The example of France In forcing the porte to settle claims through
a fleet demonstration is cited as an analogous case, and the officials here expect that
the Sultan will promptly yield to the United States' demands before the demonstration at
Smyrna reaches a serious aspect. Germany, unlike most European countries, has no claims
against Turkey, although Turkey still owes money to Germany's shipbuilding and arms
companies. The very exceptional relations Germany has with the porte will, it Is assumed,
be favorable to America should the Sultan ask for German's advice.
Better Diplomatic Status.
The press generally prints the news of the action taken by Secretary of State Hay with
regard to the difficulties between the United States and Turkey without commenting
The National Zeitung, however, considers the subject at great length, and says that the
center of gravity lies in the demands of the United States, which are no longer for
compensation to Americans for losses sustained owing to the troubles in Armenia, but for
the raising of American diplomatic representation to ambassadorial dignity in order that
American citizens may enjoy in Turkey the same rights and privileges enjoyed by the
citizens of other powers signatory to the treaties of Paris and Berlin.
The Turkish government opposes the wishes of the United States in this respect ostensibly
on the grounds of economy, but really because naturalized Armenians, "American
Asiatics," are the most dangerous enemies to the existing order of affairs in Turkey.
The Sultan, the National Zeitung says, is not likely to yield without a hard struggle, and
President Roosevelt cannot afford the loss of prestige which, would result from a failure
to enforce his demands. For this latter reason the outcome will be watched with the
Possible Diplomatic Rupture.
Secretary Hay occupies considerable time at the Cabinet meeting yesterday in a
presentation of the latest phases of the Turkish situation. He recounted the details of
his interview with Chekib Bey, the Turkish Minister, at which the Secretary forcibly
stated the attitude of the American government. He explained also the reasons which had
actuated him in requesting that the American European Squadron should be sent to Smyrna,
the most convenient port to Constantinople, It is not deemed wise by the Secretary that
the reasons for this action should be disclosed entirely at this time.
Fresh negotiations with the porte have been instituted, and, in the event of their
failure, it may be that Minister Leishman will leave his post and go aboard the American
flagship, thus creating a situation of some seriousness.
Holdwater: You can bet the sneakiest move of the Armenian
"colonists" was to become American citizens, not caring anything about America
of course, with the idea of going back to the Ottoman Empire to stir trouble, now counting
on the protection of the United States government. Indeed, "American
Asiatics" were "the most dangerous enemies to the existing order of affairs in
The Mansfield News ("Only Four Escaped"), August 2, 1904; also The
Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette ("Armenians Make Raid"), The Altoona
Mirror ("Revolutionists are Active"). and The Ogden Standard
("Armenians Ambush Soldiers"). The one below is from The Anaconda
Armenians on War Path.
Constantinople, Aug. 1.— Official telegrams report that a band of Armenian
revolutionists ambushed a party of soldiers near Moush. On the arrival of reinforcements
the Armenians fled, setting fire to three villages on their way.
Another band of Armenians, numbering 60, attacked the village of Mousum, in the vilayet of
Erzeroum, but was repulsed by the garrison, and attempted to escape to the Russian
frontier. This was prevented by the frontier guards, however, only four of the Armenians
Derailed and Thrown Over Precipice
Sandusky Star Journal, Feb. 22, 1905
TRAINS DERAILED AND THROWN OVER PRECIPICE
Armenian Revolutionists in Baku Region Wrought Awful Tragedy ...All Passeagers
Killed by Dastardly Work of the Rebels.
BERIN Feb 22 — [Moi?n] Post reports that the Armenian revolutionists near Baku
have derailed a number of trains on the Caucasian railway and have hurled them over
a precipice. All of the occupants of the trains were killed. The number of victims
is not known.
|Real Revolution There
The Indiana Democrat, Mar. 1, 1905
REAL REVOLUTION THERE
Armenians of Black Sea Region Form Provisional Government.
According to reports from Batoum racial disorders in the Caucasus have developed into
actual revolution in the cities of Batoum, Pati and Kutals, at the eastern end of the
Black sea, under the lead of Armenians, who have set up a form of provisional government.
Telegraphic communication has been cut off for several days.
The Armenian faction a few days ago made prisoners of most of the officials, shutting up
the officers and some of the troops in the barracks, and, aided to some extent by
reservists, took the reins of government into their own hands. The semi-weekly steamer
service between Batoum and Odessa has been interrupted.
Give Approval / Russian Slaughter of Jews
Oakland Tribune, May 10, 1905
POWERS GIVE APPROVAL
CONSTANTINOPLE, May 10.—The ambassadors of six of the powers to-day presented to
the Porte a collective note approving the financial scheme for administering the
three Macedonian vilayets, Salonica, Monistir and Uskub, conditional upon Turkey
agreeing to the appointment of four financial representatives of the powers which
will constitute a commission to deal with the provincial budgets.
Troubles are recommencing in Armenia. Advices from Bitlis say there have been
encounters between revolutionists and Turkish troops in the neighborhood of Mush,
during which a number of men were killed or wounded. In addition to the Armenian
bands already reported to have crossed the Persian frontier other bands are said to
be preparing to Invade Ottoman territory.
SLAUGHTER OF JEWS
Two Hundred Said to Have Been Killed By Russians.
ST. PETERSBURG, May 10.— This afternoon very grave reports are current in this
city as to the extent of the massacre of Jews at Zhitomir the number of killed and
wounded now being placed as high as 200, but precise information is lacking.
The Minister of the Interior has called for a detailed report, which is expected
Dispatches are being held up. Telegrams sent by the, Associated Press to Zhitomir
NO FURTHER DETAILS.
ST., PETERSBURG, May 10.— No further details have reached here from Zhitomar, the
scene of the recent attack of the Orthodox Christians on the Jews. It is asserted
that a fortnight before the disorders proclamations were spread calling on the
Christians to beat the Jews. When these proclamations were shown to the Mayor of
Zhitomar the latter declared them to be stupid and said there was no occasion for
At the ministry of the interior it is said that M. Bouligan sent urgent instructions
the night of, May 8 to Zhitomir ordering the authorities there to "protect the
Jews and prevent disorders.
The creditors of M. Kroushevan, former editor of the Bessarabitz, have levied on his
newspaper, the Friend, recently established at Kishineff.
SEIZE REVOLUTIONARY PRESS.
BATOUM, Caucasia, May 10.— The authorities here this morning seized a secret
revolutionary printing press.
|Officers Raid a Bomb Factory
Indiana County Gazette, July 15, 1905
Officers Raid a Bomb Factory.
St. Petersburg. July 15— Advices from Baku.Trans-Caucasia, report that the police
there made a raid on a secret bomb factory operated by terrorists. The officers
seized 90 bombs ready for use and a large quantity of materials for the manufacture
of infernal machines.
|Armenians Massacred Forty-two Workmen
Lincoln Evening News, Feb, 27, 1905
Bloodshed Rampart in Caucasus.
ST. PETERSBURG, Feb. 27. The situation in Caucasus is rapidly becoming more serious. At
Baku today Armenians massacred forty-two workmen in Milikoff's factory who refused to
participate in the revolutionary movement.
Commissioned to Kill
The Marshfield Times, Sept. 29, 1905
Consul General Dickinson at Constantinople secures an admission from Vartanian that
he was commissioned by the Armenian revolutionists to kill.
|American Penal Practice, 1906: Ball and Chain
(The following is presented as a reminder of the times, keeping in
mind the holier-than-thous pointing to the barbarities of the Ottomans. Note the crime of
the prisoners here.)
Oakland Tribune, May 4, 1906, excerpted
DRUNKARDS 'WARE OF POLICE!
BALL AND CHAIN METHOD TO BE USED
SAN FRANCISCO. May 4.— A ball and chain and plenty of hard labor for drunks — that is
what the Police Department and the District Attorney's office are planning. The police,
judges, Chief Dinan and the District Attorney's office will enforce these drastic means to
discourage intemperance. Up till now drunks have been confined in the Stanyan-street
station, then kicked into the street. This has been done because there is no prison,
temporary or permanent.
"We cannot run things according to Hoyle these times," said Judge Cabaniss.
"Drunkenness and lawlessness must be stopped and we will use the simplest and
quickest methods to stamp them out. We need men these days."
"Ball and chain and work — that Is what the District Attorney's office will
use," said Assistant District Attorney Bernard Flood. "The drunkards and the
loafers must be weeded out."
The Anaconda Standard, May 4, 1906
(Variation of the following may be found in The Fort Wayne Sentinel, May 3. The
Reno Evening Gazette and The Oakland Tribune also printed the same, both
dated May 4, the latter with the headline, GREAT PLOT TO ROB IS FOILED.)
DARING REVOLUTIONARY PLOT ON MOST PRETENTIOUS SCALE
Correspondence of the Associated Press. Baku. Caucasia. April 18.— A daring plot
or Armenian revolutionists to rob the magazine in the arsenal here, guarded hy the
Salivanesk [Salivansk] regiment, and containing more than 1,000,000 rifle
cartridges, the entire reserve supply for all the regiments opposing the garrison,
was accidentally discovered when Ihe conspirators were already on the very verge of
success. They bored a tunnel 700 feet long in the direction of the arsenal. It was
one of the most pretentious examples of subterranean work in revolutionary annals
since the days of the terrorists of the '80s.
From the basement of an Armenian house the revolutionists worked their way under
several Intervening residences to a depth of 20 feet. They constructed a completely
sided tunnel, roofed it with planks and provided it with electric light and electric
bells, connected with the stations of the several revolutionists on watch.
Owing to a slight miscalculation the tunnel. In burrowing upward entered, not the
magazine, but an adjoining storeroom in the arsenal containing uniforms. Before they
had time to rectify their mistake the revolutionists were accidentally discovered by
an officer: the alarm was given and a cordon of troops was immediately thrown around
the adjoining houses. But owing to the length of the tunnel, the Armenian house from
which the conspirators started was not suspected and they had ample time to escape.
The tunnel entrance was eventually discovered by volunteers, who entered it from the
storeroom and traced the passage lo its source.
|Four Villages Reduced to Ashes
The Lima Times Democrat, Sept. 19, 1906
FOUR VILLAGES REDUCED TO ASHES.
By Associated Press.
Tiflis, Sept. 19.— According to a report received here from the governor general
of the Caucasus, four Tartar villages In the district of [Sangesur?] have been
reduced to ashes by Armenians. The inhabitants of seven Armenian villages
participated In the work of destruction but fled before the arrival of troops. The
Tartar residents of the devastated region who escaped massacre have fled from the
district. The bodies of the slain lie unburied among the ruins.
|Turk Troops Wipe Out Greek Insurgents
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, July 30, 1907
TURKISH TROOPS AND BASHI-BAZOUKS VICTORIOUS
Band of Greek Insurgents Wiped Out After a Big Pitched Battle.
Athens. July 30.— There has been a pitched battle between Turkish troops, supported by
Bashi-Bazouks, and a small band of Greek insurgents, who had entrenched themselves in a
house in the outskirts of Seres, European Turkey, fifty miles north-east of Saloniki. The
band was completely wiped out but 30 men were killed before the soldiers, aided by
artillery, succeeded in capturing the miniature fortress.
During the fighting the Bashi-Bazouks pillaged over one hundred houses and burned a number
of Greek buildings in Seres.
New Woman in Turkey
The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette, May 27, 1907
THE NEW WOMAN IN TURKEY.
According to a very striking article in "Appleton's Magazine" for June,
discontent is rife among the veiled women of the east and the harems are hotbeds of
woman's rights discussions. The author of the article, Mrs. Vaka Brown, herself born
a Turkish subject, describes an interview with a conservative:
"I do not think Turkish parents have any right to experiment with their
children. I should not like to give to my daughters this burden of unrest. I should
like to bring them up as true Osmanll women."
"Then you disapprove of the modern system of education that is creeping into
the harems? Were you to be free to see men and choose your husbands would you still
"Yes. It took you many generations to come to where you are. Back of you there
are hundreds of grandmothers who worked for what you have to-day. With us it is
different; we shall be the first grandmothers of the new thought, and we ought to
have it come to us slowly and through our own efforts. Mussulman women, with the
help of Mahomet, ought to work out their own salvation and borrow nothing from the
west. We are a race apart, wlth different traditions and associations."
"Is this the thought of the educated women of the harems to-day?" I asked.
Houlme's face saddened as she said:
"No, young Hanum, for I am alone in this thought as far as I can make out. The
others say that we must immediately be given freedom and liberty to do as we like
with ourselves. Indeed, they look upon me with mistrust as if I were a
"Have they any definite plans of what they want to do?'
"I doubt whether you would call them definite plans, but I should like very
much to have you come with me to our next meeting, which will be in two days. There
are forty of them now and I think that they will do more harm than good, as they are
going about it in a very irrational way. Their motto is 'Down with the old ideas.'
Naturally they refuse to obey parents and husbands."
"How old are they, on tho average?"
"The youngest of them is seventeen and the oldest twenty nine. The eight or ten
strikers engaged are all unmarried with the exception of five, who have left their
"You are not sympathy with their movement, although you belong to it?"
"No, young Hanum, for I am afraid that it is more romanticism that guides them
than thought for our beloved country. I call them, to myself, 'Les Romanesques des
Harems,' though they call themselves 'Les Louises Michel.'"
"Goodness gracious!" I exclaimed, "Louise Michel was an
"So are they," said Houlme, "and because I tell them that through
anarchy we can do nothing they will not hear me."
I promised Houlme to go with her to the meeting and speak to them if they would
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